Month: September 2014

Learning The Basics Of Electric Substations

electric substations

A substation possesses high voltage electric system facility. It is used for switching equipment, generators, and lines in and out of a system or circuits. It is also used for changing AC voltages from one level to other, changing direct current to alternating current or alternating current to direct current. Some substations are not that larger, it just possesses associated switches and a transformer. Others are very large with huge number of switches and other equipment and several other transformers.

A substation which is equipped with a step up transformer enhances the voltage through lessening the current, whilst the step down transformer reduces the voltage while enhancing the current for commercial and domestic distribution. The term ‘substation’ has been into existence days before the distribution system develops into a grid.

The first substations were linked to only one power station where the generator was located, and were supplementary of that power station.

Electric Substations usually have control equipment, protection and switching, and one or more transformers. In the large substation, circuit breakers are used for interrupting any overload currents or short circuits that may perhaps happen on the network. Smaller distribution stations might use fuses or recloser circuit breakers for safety or defense of distribution circuits. Substations do not generally have generators, though a power plant may possibly have a substation close by. Other equipment, like voltage regulators and power factor correction capacitors might also be situated at a substation.

High rise buildings might have several indoor substations. Indoor substations are generally found in urban areas for lessening the sound from the transformers, because of the appearance, or for protecting switchgear from extreme pollution or climate conditions. Where a substation possesses a metallic fence, it should be properly grounded for protecting people from high voltages that might occur in a fault in the network.

Switchboards : Main Circuitry Board Of The House


Being the most prominent and basic electrical component, it needs to be highly taken care of while installing in residences or in any industrial and commercial purpose. It is supposed to be the most intricate and complex component of the home. If it is not installed in the way it should be, then it would hamper the whole electric functionality of the place. Be it any industry, commercial place or any residence; it has a special place wherein it is installed. And every place where they are installed, they play the pivotal role among all the electrical constituents.

Switchboards are comprised of various components, and not just single but every single equipment t related to switch boards are highly essential. Switch boards are lifeline of the circuit. It is via these current is passed to electrical wires, and in turn, this current lets the appliance gets on or off. Switch board installation is utmost necessary for a house. And it must be made sure, that switch boards are installed by only the professionals, not by the amateurs.

Any loophole while installing the switch boards, laying the electrical wires, keeping in mind the earthing and live wire; would help in properly placing and installing the wires in every electrical appliance. Every wire should be placed and installed properly so that there is no short circuit in the switch board and in turn the wires of the appliance.

Short circuit in the wires also becomes a cause of short circuiting the appliance. So, it must always be ensured that the switch boards, wired are installed only by the experts and professionals. If this intricate task is not given in the hands of the experts and professionals, but to amateurs, then it may tend to cause havoc in the house. Even a single improperly installed wire may become a cause of short circuit in the entire house.

Functions And Safety Of Medium Voltage Switchgear

Medium Voltage Switchgear

The main job of medium voltage switchgear is save power distribution and work as a cost efficient electrical component. One of the basic utilities and functionalities of switchgear is to provide safety and security, that is disruption of short circuit and surplus, load the fault currents at the same time maintaining the service to the unaffected circuits. Switchgear also offers isolation of circuits from power supplies. Medium Voltage Switchgear is also used for enhancing system availability by letting more than one resource to provide for load.

Design, ratings, details and specifications of switchgear are laid down by large number of standards. In some of the countries, ANSI and IEEE standards are made use of, while some or rest of the countries use IEC standards, at times with the local national variations or derivatives. A single line up may perhaps integrate several different kinds of devices, for instance, vacuum circuit breakers, air insulated bus, and physically operated switches may possibly all subsist in the same row of cubicles.

Varied classification of switchgear could be made up by the present rating, by disrupting the rating. Besides, the switch gear could also be classified based upon the insulating medium, voltage class, By construction type, such as, Industrial, Marine, Indoor, outdoor, utility, marine and many more.

For getting sure about the safe operation sequences of switchgear, the trapped key interlocking offers predefined scenarios of operation. Indoor switchgear, for internal arc containment, could also be type tested. This particular test is significant for user safety like modern switchgear is competent of switching large currents. Switchgear is generally inspected by making use of the thermal imaging for evaluating the state of the system and calculating failures prior their occurring. The increasing knowledge of dangers linked with high fault levels has resulted in network operators stating the closed door operation for operating racking breakers and earth switches.