distribution substation

Segregated Phase Bus Duct- Managing the Low and Medium Voltage Requirements

segregated phase bus

Generation and distribution of electricity is of vital importance for everything nowadays. Every enterprise and every household requires electricity. There are various devices and components which are involved in the production and management of electricity as it is a very complex process. Segregated Phase Bus Duct is one such device which is designed for the low and medium voltage requirements.

The purpose of such designs is to meet specific, continuous and short circuit current ratings and generating stations, substations and industrial distribution systems which can be installed indoors and outdoors. In a segregated bus duct, each phase conductor is separated by a grounded barrier from adjacent phases unlike in non-segregated phase ducts where all phase conductors are in the same enclosure. For conducting large currents between devices, a cable bus is used. For very large currents in generating stations or substations, where it is difficult to provide circuit protection, an isolated-phase bus is used. Each phase of the circuit is run in a separate grounded metal enclosure. The only fault possible is a phase-to-ground fault, since the enclosures are separated. This type of bus can be rated up to 50,000 amperes and up to hundreds of kilovolts (during normal service, not just for faults), but is not used for building wiring in the conventional sense.

One of the greatest advantages of bus ducts is that they are capable of adding or removing a branch circuit without removing voltage from the whole duct. It carries large amounts of amperage across a distance. This is useful in plant design so that you can pull individual leads down from it to machinery. The problem with this is control. If it is installed and the plant does not properly keep up on load documentation, it is easy to overload it. Installing bus duct requires the installer to work with and handle high voltages and currents which can cause instant death. Therefore, it should be done with utmost care and all the necessary precautions should be taken.

Distribution Substation: Final Stage in the Process of Electrical Distribution

In today’s modern day and age, no one can even conceive of fulfilling any task without electricity being available. Electricity is required for everything, from keeping the water cold and the food fresh in the refrigerators to the air conditioning that is required in the summer months when the temperature gets extremely high and unbearable. Also, in the months of winter electricity is required for heating purposes.

In such a scenario, the job of those who are producing and distributing electricity becomes very vital. It is the job of the Distribution Substation to send the electricity in the right amount and the right voltage to the final consumers.

distribution-substationRole of the Distribution Substation

After electricity has been produced in the generating station, from there the produced electricity travels to the distribution substation where the voltage is transformed from low to high or vice-versa. Between the electricity being produced in the generating station and reaching the final consumers or the users, the electric current may flow through a number of distribution substations at different voltage levels.

A distribution substation contains transformers in order to transform voltage. Generally, a distribution substation has two kinds of transformers- a step- up transformer and the other one is the step- down transformer. As the name suggests, the step-up transformer function is to increase voltage and reduce the electric current. On the other hand, the job of the step- down transformer is to decrease the voltage and increase the electric current.

The role that the Distribution Substation plays is extremely important. They transfer the electric current from a transmission system into a distribution system. In a Distribution Substation generally there are two transmission lines that provide the input and it also contains a set of feeders that act as output. The voltage runs through the substation, and out of the feeders. It then travels to a distribution transformer and generates electricity.

Electrical Substations: How Engineers Layout Its Design?

Electrical Substation, a part of an electrical transmission, distribution and generation system’s main concern is encountering is its cost and reliability. An apt design attempts to strike a balance between the two sub stations, to attain reliability without a high cost. The design must also allow growth of the station, whenever obligatory.

Selection of the location of Electrical Substations must consider a lot of factors. Adequate land area is obligatory for installation of equipment with obligatory clearances for electrical protection, and for access to preserve large electrical machines like transformers. Where the land is expensive, like in urban areas; gas insulated switchgear may perhaps save money. The location or the spot must have room for expansion because of the load growth or premeditated transmission additions. Ecological effects of the substation should be considered, like, road traffic, noise and drainage effects. Earthing or grounding system ought to be designed. The total ground probable rise, and the gradients in probable throughout the fault (known as “touch” and “step” potentials), have got to be calculated to defend passers-by throughout the short-circuit in the transmission system. The substation locations have got to be rationally central to the distribution area to be provided. The location should be secure from intrusion by passers-by, together with protecting people from harm by arcs or electric shock, and to defend the electrical system from disoperation because of vandalism.

The primary step in planning a substation layout is the planning out of one line diagram that shows in simplified form the switching and protection requisite display and the incoming supply lines and transmission lines or outgoing feeders. It is a general practice by several electrical utilities to chart out one-line diagrams with principal elements, such as, switches, lines, transformers, circuit breakers set on the page similarly to the way the apparatus would be laid in the definite station.

Distribution Substation: Transmitting Power

Substation

All the electrical proceedings, electrical wires tend to pass through a component or unit which makes it feasible and practical to go to other units, easily. It is these electrical components that make work easy for the electricity house to easily distribute electricity to every house or single unit. It is the job and task of the electrical components that they effectively make use of the distribution station. The function of these distribution substations is major. The actual and prime usage of these units is to transfer power from the transmission system to the specific area’s distribution system. Hence, the task of Distribution substation could not be easily neglected.

They being the major and important units of the electrical system, they are given the highest authority to perform every single task, efficiently. It is quite extravagant or waste to straight away connect electricity users to the main transmission network, until and unless they make use of large amounts of power. It is because of this reason; the distribution station lessens the voltage to the most appropriate level for the local distribution.

The key functionality behind the use of these substations is not clearly understood. Hence, the function and service rendered by these units should be verified and tested by the electrical houses. The more intricate the functionality, the more complex would be the electrical wire mess. The function being obscure and complex, it is necessary that the personnel engaged in handling these substation is a proficient and competent one. Experts and only skilled professionals should be surcharged of handling the substations. If they are not that experienced, the service rendered by them would not be of that standard and competence. So, if you are factory owner going through this post, ensure that only experienced and skilled personnel are being employed in your unit.

Learning The Basics Of Electric Substations

electric substations

A substation possesses high voltage electric system facility. It is used for switching equipment, generators, and lines in and out of a system or circuits. It is also used for changing AC voltages from one level to other, changing direct current to alternating current or alternating current to direct current. Some substations are not that larger, it just possesses associated switches and a transformer. Others are very large with huge number of switches and other equipment and several other transformers.

A substation which is equipped with a step up transformer enhances the voltage through lessening the current, whilst the step down transformer reduces the voltage while enhancing the current for commercial and domestic distribution. The term ‘substation’ has been into existence days before the distribution system develops into a grid.

The first substations were linked to only one power station where the generator was located, and were supplementary of that power station.

Electric Substations usually have control equipment, protection and switching, and one or more transformers. In the large substation, circuit breakers are used for interrupting any overload currents or short circuits that may perhaps happen on the network. Smaller distribution stations might use fuses or recloser circuit breakers for safety or defense of distribution circuits. Substations do not generally have generators, though a power plant may possibly have a substation close by. Other equipment, like voltage regulators and power factor correction capacitors might also be situated at a substation.

High rise buildings might have several indoor substations. Indoor substations are generally found in urban areas for lessening the sound from the transformers, because of the appearance, or for protecting switchgear from extreme pollution or climate conditions. Where a substation possesses a metallic fence, it should be properly grounded for protecting people from high voltages that might occur in a fault in the network.

Distribution substation for controlling electricity supply to a region

distribution substation

Lowering of the voltage: The electricity generated at the power plants is extremely high and hazardous for direct supply. It is not at all fit for supply to commercial places, leave apart private places such as homes. In case there is direct supply of electricity from the power houses to homes, all the electric points would burn out. That is why the distribution substation does the work of a controller. It receives the power supply from the power plants and lowers the voltage for low level usage, such as home, shops, etc. The substation lowers the voltage to an extent that it can be used at places of low electricity-usage such as homes and small scale business establishments. Moreover, it is responsible for controlling the supply of electricity in the network under it. The work of a substation is to maintain appropriate levels of electric supply and ensure that there is no problem or issues with the electricity network.

The role of power transformer: It is the distribution system’s work that there is no fault in the flow of electric current falling in its region  or area. It ensures that there is seamless and fault free electricity supply and the voltage is under control. In fact, the exact equipment or device  which is responsible for the work is the power transformer. To be precise, it is the work of the power transformer to convert the electricity received from the power plants to low voltage levels or high voltage levels and also to stop the falling current. So the power transformer raises or reduces the voltage of the electricity received from the power generation plants to appropriate levels. Moreover, the work of the substation is to ensure fault free power supply to the region falling under it. It regulates and monitors the power supply in its region and rectifies or corrects if there is any issue relating to the malfunctioning or breakdown of the electric flow system anywhere in the entire network.

 

Distribution Substation: Specifications And Technicalities

Distribution Substation

The Distribution substation guidebook comprises of the approved standard arrangements for the installation, design and construction of distribution substations, connection of clients to these substations and interconnection of the substations to the surrounding LV and HV networks.  The distribution substation converts the voltage closer to the needed and required usable levels.

The distribution substation obtains power from one or more transmission or sub transmission lines at the resultant transmission or sub transmission voltage level and offers that power to one or more distribution feeders which invent in the substation and encompass the primary network. Most feeders originate radically from the substation for supplying the load.

There are five major functions of the Distribution Substation:

1.   Voltage transformation: One or more transformers would always be situated within the substation to step down the voltage to the prime distribution voltage level. These transformers would always be three phase banks, or they would be three single phase banks associated in a three phase configuration. The standard primary distribution voltage levels take account of 7.2kV, 4.16kV, 13.2kV, 12.47kV, 14.4kV, 34.5kV and 23.9kV.

2.   Switching and protection: Varied types of switchgear will be situated at the substation, comprising the following:

a. Switches

b. Circuit breakers

c. Reclosers

d. Fuses

3.   Voltage regulation: For the reason that current flows from source to load alongside the length of the feeder, and since the feeder has some quantity of impedance per unit length Z, the feeder would generate a voltage drop IZ volts per unit length.

4.   Metering: Most substations do have some kind of metering device which records, at a smallest amount, existing current and current maximum and minimum which have occurred in the last time period, for example 1 hour. Digital recording is also extensively used and competent of recording a large quantity of substation operational information.

 

 

 

What Is Known As Electric Substations?

Substations are a familiar sight at the side of cities and highways. Substations take the electrical energy from the transmission lines and from power plants and transform it from high to a lower voltage. They distribute electricity to customers and supervise and defend the distribution network to keep it working efficiently and safely, for instance by using circuit breakers, that is, the industrial strength equivalent of the humble fuse for cutting power in case of a problem.

electric substations

Substations are often classed as per the switchgear made use for protecting their circuits.

  • Air-insulated switchgear or also known as by the abbreviation AIS, is used to be the most ordinary design, although this needs a lot of space and for higher voltages is only reasonable outdoors. Even then, AIS or Air insulated switchgear might be unsuitable or undesirable in certain locations, such as residential areas.
  • Gas-insulated switchgear or also called as by the abbreviation as GIS might be more expensive if only the unit cost is measured up to, but is safer and requires less maintenance. The information that GIS units are five times smaller than AIS means cost savings and less or smaller intrusive buildings.

Electrical lines could be underground or overhead. The construction of overhead lines charges less, but outages are more common than on the underground lines, that is owing to the accidents, lightning strikes or bad weather.

What is found in an Electric Substations ? The equipment or tools found in switching devices and power transformers. Switching devices which are found in a substation are circuit breakers and dis connectors. Both these are used for cutting power in case of a problem, and measurement, defense and control equipment required for ensuring its safe and well organized operation. Since they are highly useful both commercially and residentially, therefore, they must be manufactured properly.

 

Electrical Substations: The Basics

electric substations

A substation is a division of an electrical generation, distribution and transmission system. Substations convert voltage from high to low, or the overturn, or execute any of numerous other vital functions. Between the generating station and customer, electric power might flow through several substations at varied voltage levels.

Substations might be owned and operated by an electrical efficacy, or might be owned by a large commercial or industrial client. Usually substations are unattended, relying on SCADA for remote control and supervision.

A substation might include transformers for changing voltage levels between the lower distribution voltages and high transmission voltages, or at the interconnection of two varied transmission voltages. The word substation comes from the being prior the distribution system became a grid. Since central generation stations became larger, smaller generating plants were transformed to Electrical Substations, receiving their energy supply from a larger plant despite of utilizing their own generators.

 

Electricity Distribution Using Substation Automation

distribution substation

One of the key features of the automated system which the entire procedure of electricity flowing is continually monitored and data is eventually gathered. In this regard and manner, it could be made certain that electricity is not worn out, which eventually results in a cleaner surroundings and helps in saving valuable natural resources, beside money. The notion of an automated system which distributes power is more or less alike to that of distribution substation that transmits television programs or radio. Like, in the case of these studios transmitting precise programs to a wide number of users, the automated systems are also competent of steering power to a wide number of residences in the most favorable manner. With several technical breakthroughs occurring, approximately every passing day, there are several other advantages which are expected to come for the end users in the days to come with automatic systems of electricity distribution.